has become extinct!
Truth has become scarce!
Mind is the cause for both,
Oh Valiant sons of Bharat!
Bharatiya (Indian) does
not mean a person born in the country of Bharat alone. The culture of
Bharat is the mother. The country of Bharat is the father. Bharatiya is one who has faith
in and lives under the care of these parents.
Several noble souls have taken birth in Bharat, followed the great
culture of this country, and set examples to others. Sri Sankaracharya
is one such great personality who spread the culture of Bharat
throughout the length and breadth of the country and earned eternal
fame. Adi Sankara taught the philosophy of advaita (monism). Three
centuries after him came Sri Ramanujacharya, who advocated the visishtadvaita (qualified
monism) system of philosophy, which emphasised bhakti (devotion) and prapatthi (surrender) to God.
Two centuries after Sri Ramanujacharya, Sri Madhwacharya arrived on the
scene and propagated the dvaita
(dualism) system of philosophy emphasising the devotional path to the
people vacillating between several systems of philosophy. However, the
fundamental principle underlying all the three schools of philosophy is
one and the same, that is, Atma
(non-dualistic) philosophy of Sri Sankaracharya advocates the oneness
of jiva (individual soul)
and Brahman (cosmic soul). The visishtadvaita
philosophy of Sri Ramanujacharya presupposes that jiva and Brahman are
different. Sri Madhwacharya explained that there are, in fact, three
concepts, namely, dehatma bhava (body consciousness), jivatma bhava (individualised
form of God) and Paramatma Bhava
(the universalised soul or the Supreme self). Nobody need hold on to a
particular school of thought or deride the others. The question of
adhering to a particular school of philosophy depends upon the mental
frame work of the individual. Sri Sankaracharya emphasised that though
the cloth is of different varieties, the thread underlying the cloth is
one and the same. "The cloth is made of a number of threads woven
together," explained Sri Ramanujacharya. One has to recognise the
underlying principle behind the three schools of philosophy, namely,
the advaita, the visishtadvaita, and the dvaita.
are many, gold is one;
Colours of the cows are many,
milk is one;
Beings are many, the Indweller
Nationalities are many,
humanness is one.
Adi Sankara had a short life span of 32 years. Though the philosophy
advocated by Sri Sankaracharya, Sri Ramanujacharya, and Sri
Madhwacharya acquired different names, namely, advaita, visishtadvaita, and dvaita, the underlying nature
of the three types is one, that is Atma Tattwa. The same can be
explained with the example of gold forming the base for ornaments with
different names and forms.
Not realising the fundamental unity between the three schools of
philosophy, people adhering to the different schools of philosophy
derided one another, which gave scope for a number of misconceptions in
the world about the country of Bharat. In order to explain the truth Ekatma sarva bhutantaratma (one
Atma dwells in all
beings), Adi Sankara gave some examples. He took out an ornament and
explained that the metal with which the ornament was made was gold,
thus going into the fundamental principle. The same principle was
explained in a different way by Sri Ramanujacharya who emphasised that
though gold forms the basis for the ornament, since it has assumed the
form of a chain, it should be called a gold chain.
Sri Sankaracharyam while advocating the advaita, philosophy quoted the Vedic dictum Ekameva adviteeyam Brahma (God
is one without a second). Sri Ramanujacharya, however, did not agree
with this view. His viewpoint was: how could there be a prathibimba (image) without a bimba (object). He thus
explained the oneness of the object and the image, which he termed as visishtadvaita, (qualified
non-dualism). Another example given in this context was the sugarcane
juice. The juice is extracted from different varieties of sugar cane
and a number of sweetmeats are made out of the juice. Though the juice
is one, it has now assumed different forms. While Sri Sankaracharya
emphasised the oneness of the sweet juice and the sugarcane, Sri
Ramanujacharya dwelt upon the different forms the juice has assumed.
Thus, ever since the times of the three great acharyas (teachers) till today,
there are a number of arguments and counter arguments between the three
schools of philosophy. But, present day students do not have faith in
any of these three schools of philosophy. They just brush aside these
systems as a figment of imagination. Sugar made out of the sugar cane
juice is the main ingredient for making various sweets. The sugar is
sweet. Similarly, Brahman is the source and sustenance for the entire
universe. Wherever you see, you will find manifestation of the Divine
(Brahman) in ever so many forms. The forms change and are illusory in
Brahman alone is the eternal, changeless principle. That is why Sri
Sankaracharya has declared, Brahma
sathyam jagat mithya (Brahman alone is real, the world is
illusory). All the three great acharyas,
namely, Sri Sankaracharya, Sri Ramanujacharya, and Sri Madhwacharya,
propagated the same principle, that is, Atma Tattwa.
The Upanishads declare
that the entire universe is permeated by the same Atmic principle. That truth is
contained in the Upanishadic
dicta, Ekatma sarva bhutantaratma
(one Atma dwells in all
beings), Easwarah sarva bhutanam
(God is the Indweller of all beings), and Isavasyam idam sarvam (the
entire universe is permeated by God).
The rain, the water that flows into the river and the sand in the
river that sustains it --all are one and only one. Everything is
Brahman. Since every object in this universe is Brahman, nothing can be
disregarded or ignored. This principle of Brahman is called "divine" in
the English language. But many ignorant or cynical persons take it as
"deep wine" and take to imbibing intoxicating substances. Disregarding
such perversion, we have to realise that the sweetness underlying
Divinity is one only. This oneness in the great culture of Bharat has
been propagated since ancient times. In keeping with this great
tradition, consider everyone, whether it is an ant or an animal or a
human being, as verily Brahman.
Some people may have a doubt in this context whether a human being
and an animal can be equated. Yes, so far as the Atmic principle is concerned.
However, the behavioural pattern of the animal is different from that
of the human being. Considering this aspect, one may conclude that they
are different but the underlying Jiva
Tattwa is one and the same. On the basis of this Jiva Tattwa, you cannot
differentiate at all between the living beings. Thus, Sarvam Brahmamayam Jagat (the
entire universe is permeated by Brahman). This truth can be explained
by a simple example. This is a white cloth and that is a saffron cloth.
Though the colours are different, the cloth is one. The cloth may be of
different colours and put to different uses, but the cloth is only one
and the same. The cloth is the source. One has to recognise the oneness
of the source. Once you recognise the source, all differences vanish in
no time. Unfortunately, today, we are giving importance to the names
and forms, forgetting the basis and source for all names and forms. As
a result, we are undergoing innumerable difficulties and sorrows.
Adi Sankara has explained the advaitic
principle beautifully in his famous Bhaja Govindam song thus:
Govindam, Bhaja Govindam
Govindam Bhaja Moodha Mathe
Samprapthe Sannihithe Kale
Nahi Nahi Rakshati Dukrun Karane.
Oh foolish man, chant the name of
the rules of grammar will not come to your rescue
when the end approaches.
If the end approaches, nothing can save you except the divine Name.
Therefore, chant the divine Name. Thus, Sri Sankaracharya exhorted,
awakened and taught the world.
Further explaining the sorrows and difficulties faced by man in his
life's sojourn in this objective world and the need to seek refuge in
the divine grace, Sri Sankaracharya composed the following stanza:
Jananam Punarapi Maranam
Punarapi Janani Jathare Sayanam
Iha Samsare Bahu Dustare
Kripayapare Pahi Murare.
I am caught up in this cycle of birth and death time and again;
I am experiencing the agony of staying in the mother's womb.
It is very difficult to cross this ocean of worldly life.
Please take me across this ocean and grant me liberation.
One has to analyse, in this context, as to what is it that is
subject to birth and death again and again. The deha (body) undergoes this
cycle of birth and death, but the Atma
is eternal. As long as the Atma
remains in the body as the Indweller, there will be consciousness in
the body. The moment the Atma
leaves the body, it becomes jada
(inert). This phenomenon is called death. Unable to realise this truth,
man subjects himself to sorrow. Birth and death are only for the outer
form, not for the Atma.
A short story in this context. There was once a philospher-son, who
was learning Vedas. By
the time he completed his Vedic
learning, his mother completed forty years of life. She left her mortal
body in her 40th year. The son was deeply immersed in sorrow. Then, his
guru called him and tried to counsel him explaining, "Whom do you
consider as your mother? The body? No, this is not your mother. You are
wailing over a dead body, which your mother has left. In fact, the body
is right before you. Why should you have to weep? The chaitanya shakti (power of
consciousness) has left the body. It means that chaitanya shakti represents
your father and mother, not the forms and attachments to those forms.
No doubt, it is true that relationship does exist with the physical
form for sometime. But, thereafter the body ceases to exist. When you
realise the truth, you will understand the futility of the relationship
with the physical body."
The objects may be different, but the source and sustenance for the
objects is only one. The same source assumes different names and forms.
One should not develop dependence on the names and forms, which are
subject to change. This simple truth based on the Mooladhara Tattwa has been
explained by different people in different ways as high sounding
philosophy. This has given scope to some misconceptions to a certain
extent. In fact, the underlying principle behind the advaita philosophy of Sri
Sankaracharya and visishtadvaita
philosophy of Sri Ramanujacharya is one and the same.
of Love! Students!
Today, we are taking very lightly such a great and noble philosophy.
Sri Sankaracharya's Philosophy is profound in nature and explains the
great truth in simple and beautiful poetry. Any amount of explanation
will be insufficient to bring out the underlying philosophy in full
Sri Sankaracharya has written a great commentary (bhashya) on Bhagavad Gita also. In his
commentary Gita, Adi
Sankara has explained that there is advaita in dvaita and dvaita in advaita. Further, the visishtadvaita contains both advaita and dvaita concepts as well. All
the three schools of philosophy, therefore, lead to the same goal, and
their underlying meaning is, Brahma
sathyam jaganmithya (Brahman alone is the truth and the world is
The whole world appears as containing innumerable names and forms.
One should not be enmeshed with these names and forms. It is only when
the names and forms are set aside and the underlying source is
identified that it is possible to recognise the truth. And that truth
is Tattwamasi (That Thou
Art). That is Prajnanam
Brahma (constant integrated awareness is Brahman). That awareness is Ayam Atma Brahma (This Self is
Brahman). When you analyse the mahavakya
Tattwamasi, it will lead you to the awareness "I am That" and
"That I am". When you are able to realise this truth, you will find
that the principle "I" underlies everything in the universe as the
principle of unity. We have to recognise that "I" principle, which is
universal. It is a futile exercise to get into arguments and
counter-arguments over this matter and waste one's time. The only
aspect you have to realise is "I am Brahman." When somebody questions
you who you are, the proper answer would be "I am I", "I am the word, I
am the form, and I am the name." This "I" represents and explains
everything. When somebody questions who you are, do not reply by
quoting your name. The name represents the name given to the body. You
are not the body. Hence reply "I am I." Everyone should strive to
attain that state of unity.
The Vedantic concepts
lead to endless arguments and counter-arguments. Do not enter into
them. Always be under the awareness "I am I." This "I" principle is
beyond names and forms. It represents Brahma Tattwa, which is one
without a second entity.
When somebody enquires who you are, you reply, "I am I." Similarly,
when you enquire somebody who he is, his reply would be "I am I." Thus,
all are "I am I." It is only when you think "I am not I" that there
will be several questions.
You have to finally make a firm resolve "I am I." You should not
identify yourself with the body and say, "I am a child," "I am a young
man," "I am an old man," etc. These differences relate to the age
factor. What is the next stage after old age? Nobody knows. But, "I"
principle exists in the child, youth and old age. This is the
fundamental and changeless principle. Therefore, when somebody enquires
who you are, you reply, "I am I." If he is unable to understand this
principle, do not bother; you hold on to your principle. It is only
when you develop such firm conviction that you will be able to achieve
anything in life. The philosophical concepts can be explained in ever
so many ways. They contain several meanings.
On the 20th October 1940, I made a declaration for the first time
revealing my true identity thus:
Know that I am
Sai in reality,
Cast off your worldly relationships,
Give up your efforts to restrain Me,
The worldly attachments can no longer bind Me,
None, however great he may be, can hold Me.
Since I made this declaration on the 20th October, people celebrate
this day in a big way. We should not give too much importance to the
dates and try to celebrate them as birthday, Avatar Declaration Day,
etc. Once, Rukmini, the consort of Lord Krishna, invited Him to her
palace saying, "Swami! Today is my birthday. Please come for dinner."
Sathyabhama, another consort of Krishna, who was present on that
occasion, was angry. She argued, "If today is your birthday, this is
also the day on which I entered into the in-laws' house. Krishna tied
the nuptial knot round my neck on this day. Therefore, He should visit
my house only, on this day."
Thus, the day turned out to be a day of quarrel between the two
consorts. Lord Krishna, however was prepared to visit both houses. He
does not differentiate between them. Thus, one has to recognise the
principle of unity in Divinity.